Definition and C
lassification of Disability
Definition of Disability
Disability is the condition of difficulty in carrying out daily
activities normally and in taking part in social life due to problems in parts of the body
he physical system as well as obstacles created by physical, social, cultural
environment and by communication
Classification of Disability
: According to the nature of
difficulty in the parts of the body and in the physical system, disabil
ity has been
the following seven categories.
Physical disability is the problem that arises in
operation of physical parts, use and movement
in a person
problems in nerves, muscles and composition and operat
ion activities of
bones and joints.
For example: polio, cerebral palsy, absence of a body
part, effect of leprosy, muscular dystrophy, problem with joints and spinal
chord, club feet, rickets, weakness produced due to problem related to
bones etc. are phys
ical disability. Short and stunted also fall into this
Disability related to vision
: Disability related to vision is the condition
there is no knowledge about an
object’s figure, shape, form and
color in an individual due to problem wit
h vision. This is of two types.
Blind: A person who cannot see the fingers of hand by both eyes at a
distance of 10 feet despite treatment (medicine, surgery and use of
glasses), or cannot read the first line of Snellen chart (3/60), then that
Low Vision: If a
ny person who cannot distinguish fingers of a hand
from a 20 feet distance despite treatments like medicine, surgery and use
of glasses, in other words, cannot read the letters of the fourth line of
Snellen chart, then that pers
on has low vision
2.3 Disability related to hearing
: Problems arising in an individual related
to discrimination of composition of the parts of hearing and voice, rise
and fall of position, and level and quality of voice is a disability related to
g. It is of two types:
2.3.1 Deaf: An individual who cannot hear, speaks incoherently or cannot
speak and who has to use sign language for communication is deaf. An
individual who cannot
hear sound above 80 decibels is deaf.
2.3.2 Hard of Hearing: An
individual who can hear only little but can hear
little and cannot talk clearly, can only speak little, who needs to put
hearing aid in the ear to listen
is a hard of hearing. An individual who
can hear sound between 65 decibels and 80 decibels is a hard
: An individual who is without both hearing and vision is a
Disability related to voice and speech:
Due to difficulty produced in
parts related to voice and speech and difficulty in rise and fall of voice
speak, unclear speech, repetition of words and letters is disability related
to voice and speech.
The inability to behave in accordance
situation and delay in intellectual learning due to problems arising in
implementation of intellectual activities like problems arising
in the brain and mental parts and awareness, orientation, alertness,
memory, language, calculation is mental disability.
2.6.1 Intellectual disability/Mental retardation: An individual havi
difficulty in carrying out activities relative to age or environment due
to absence of intellectual development before age of 18 years is
intellectual disability/mental retardation.
2.6.2 Mental illness:
Mental disability is an inability where there is
difficulty in living daily life due to
mental illness or weakness or
2.6.3 Autism: Absence
of normal behavior
age, to show abnormal reaction, to
to not socialize with other
s or to show extreme reaction is
2.7 Multiple disability
: Multiple disability is a problem of two or more than
two types of disability mentioned above.
Classification of disability based on the seriousness of
ility is a condition where the
difficulty in carrying out daily activities even with the continuous
assistance of others.
The condition of having to continuously take other
people’s assistance in order to carry out individual daily a
to take part in social activities is acute disability.
The condition of being able to perform daily
activities by self with or without taking others’ support
physical facilities are available
the physical environment is removed
The situation where taking part in regular daily
activities and social activities by self is possible if there is no social
and environmental obstacle is ordinary dis
By composition and function of physical parts of an individual, we should
understand related to operation of body, related to vision, related to voice
and speech, related to nerves, mental, muscle and related to parts and
functions of ot
By regular daily activities and participation in social life, we should
understand activities and participation of a persons learning, daily chores,
communication, movement, self care, home life, interaction, inclusive
t, and activities and participation in areas of
community and civil life.
By obstacles created by existing social and physical environment, we should
understand the obstacles created by psychosocial technology, natural and
human made environment, ideolo
gical, service system and policies.
In the case of mentally retarded and highly dependent disabled people
mother father or individual directly involved in nurturing is considered
guardian or concerned for participation, facilities, representation.
e classification done on the basis of dependency will be clarified by
Other things related to this will be according to Acts, Regulations.